However, in any marine environment, phytoplankton populations vary not only by season but by region. In both fresh and saltwater, a lengthy decrease in phytoplanktonic productivity can lead to a fish kill (massive fish die-off) 1. Indirect contact can occur from eating animals that have been exposed to the toxic bloom, particularly shellfish. These effects can be caused by direct or indirect contact with an algal bloom. Multicellular green algae is also not considered phytoplankton for the same reasons. This process uses carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to produce oxygen and glucose (sugars) for energy. In temperate fresh waters, growth is limited in winter because light and temperatures are low. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis releases oxygen. These harmful algal blooms can also cause shellfish poisoning in humans and other adverse effects 13. Algal blooms are most common in late summer and early fall. Blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria, are the only phytoplankton that contain phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, making the pigments good indicators of the amount of cyanobacteria in a body of water 15. The entire process occurs in Chloroplasts. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water molecules are used to make sugar for energy. This process slowly changed the inert Precambrian atmosphere into the oxygen-rich environment known today 31. At normal levels, heterotrophic bacteria in the water break down the toxins in these organisms before they can become dangerous 51. The entire process occurs in Mitochondria. In other words, Photosynthesis is the process in which energy from the sunlight is used to convert the c… Upwelling, seasonal ice melts and agricultural runoff can all increase nutrient levels, leading to an increase in phytoplankton populations. If phytoplankton are exposed to too much UV light, the excessive solar energy can break molecular bonds and destroy the organisms’ DNA 27. However, if sunlight is unavailable or minimal for an extended period of time, aquatic life will consume dissolved oxygen quicker than phytoplankton can restore it, leading to a plummet in dissolved oxygen levels 1. Eutrophication is often an indicator of agricultural runoff, which can raise phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations to very high levels. While changes within the same calendar year are normal, populations should stay consistent with previous seasonal fluctuations from year to year. If oxygen levels get too low, fish and other aquatic creatures may die 44. Direct exposure can occur from swimming or drinking affected water. In the reduction stage, ATP and NADPH produced in the light reaction stage are used to convert the 6-carbon sugar into two molecules of a 3-carbon carbohydrate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. This is because what distinguishes living things from nonliving things is the presence of cells, and cells are nothing but bags of chemicals with a … In the light reaction, sunlight powers the reaction, and H2O is converted into O2. As all phytoplankton have chlorophyll A, a chlorophyll sensor can be used to detect these organisms in-situ 41. Algae and cyanobacteria consume oxygen at night (respiration) when there is not light for photosynthesis 44. Light reactions occur mostly in the thylakoid stacks of the grana. Chlorophyll sensors are also an in-situ method for determining the trophic state (nutrient-rich, stable, or nutrient-poor) of an aquatic system 47. Which reactant in the photosynthesis equation is the source of hydrogen for sugar molecules? Some organisms need to create the energy they need to survive. In green algae, chlorophyll is also found at a higher concentration relative to the accessory pigments. This can reduce oxygen concentrations to below sustainable levels. Explain the relationship between coral and algae, and how a problem with algae photosynthesis caused coral bleaching in the Great Barrier Reef. In addition to chlorophyll A, blue-green algae also contain the pigments phycoerythrin and phycocyanin, which give the bacteria their bluish tint (hence the name, blue-green algae) 15. Photosynthesis takes place mainly in the leaves of green plants and also in the stems of herbaceous plants as they also contain chlorophyll. A large increase in the spring normally occurs as light conditions improve and water begins to mix 1. Chlorophyll A is the primary molecule responsible for photosynthesis 1,15. Photosynthesis Formula Breakdown. Red tides and fish kills scarcity 13 and algae appear green because it the... Be present eukaryotic cells such as agricultural runoff, which carry nutrients throughout the year and population! As in plants, aquatic plants and phytoplankton use these three ingredients to produce glucose ( sugar ) and.! 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